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Read the passage and answer the following classifying questions. Type the correct answers in the spaces provided.
The populating of England
A. The United Kingdom, and its cities in particular, represent a cosmopolitan mix of ethnicities and nationalities. Its multicultural characteristics have developed extensively over recent time as a result of international connections, such as those developed during the time of the British Empire and the European Union; however, the UK has had a mixture of cultures and nationalities since its early beginnings.
B. To compress thousands of years of history in a few paragraphs is a difficult task, and as with almost any historical point a millennia old, even ‘facts’ are disputable. What is generally accepted is that the first notable new arrivals to Britain came over 2000 years ago in the form of an army of Romans. Conflicts ensued with the tribal populations of Britain, but the organised martial might of the Romans proved superior, and for the following century, Roman influence spread throughout what is now known as England. Yet this was not a true invasion, as it was not until nearly 100 years later that Rome decided it wanted Britain to be part of the Roman Empire. Consequently, in 43 A.D., the first full scale invasion took place in the South East of England. Some thirty years later, Roman control had spread throughout England and Wales, although Scotland had remained defiant. Frequent incursions into England from tribes in Scotland led to the creation of one of Britain’s most impressive constructions – Hadrian’s Wall. The wall was built right across the border of Scotland and designed to protect ‘Brittania’, the Roman name given to England and Wales. Yet for 300 years, invasions from the Picts and the Scots (both tribes from Scotland) continued to harass the Romans. By 400 A.D., with the Roman Empire collapsing due to rebellions in Europe, the Roman army in Britannia was seriously weakened. Invasions by the Picts and Scots pressed deeper into what was Roman control, and new invaders arrived – the Saxons from modern-day Germany.
C. With no support from the Empire and new invaders to fight, the country soon fell into civil war, a situation exacerbated by a ravaging plague. Saxon influence in South West England soon became apparent, with those opposing them either being defeated or fleeing to France. The Angles, also from Germany, added their forces to those of the Saxons, and the Anglo-Saxon alliance proved extremely powerful, soon taking over most of South West England. But the series of invasions was not over yet, as the Visigoths arrived on the shores of Britain. Having failed to conquer Rome, the Visigoths had headed north and marched into Britain, overwhelming the Britons (the name taken by a combination of Roman invaders and original settlers).
D. The fighting continued, although to a lesser extent, between the Visigoths and the Anglo-Saxons, but in 793 Britain was once again being invaded, this time by the Vikings. Coming from Denmark, the Vikings were a fierce tribe that swept across the east of England, creating what was called the ‘Danelaw’, an area running from the south east to the north west of England which was under Viking influence. Anglo-Saxon and Viking culture mixed, creating a new, ‘British’ culture, and adding to the vocabulary of the language, a legacy of the Roman occupation. In 1066, another invasion and subsequent population by the Normans brought a new culture to the mix, adding the French component of culture and language that is easily identifiable in modern English. The Dark Ages were then replaced by the Middle Ages, and while this did not mean an end to war, it did signal the beginning of a unified country. From this point on, historians refer to international wars between England and France, England and Spain, even England and Wales, but the creation of England, the mix of over one thousand years of different culture and language, was finally formalised.
Questions 7 – 11
According to the information in the second passage, classify the following event as occurring
A. prior to 400 A.D.
B. 400 to 1066
C. 1066 onwards
Write the correct letters A-C in boxes 7-11 of your answer sheet
7. Invasion by two German groups
8. First indications of unity in Britain seen
9. Collapse of the Roman Empire
10. Visigoths invaded Britain after lack of success in the south
11. English as used to day first became identifiable